The development of novel textile materials capable of controlled interaction with the environment has contributed to the growth of smart textiles. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous integration of plastic and electronic components into textile structures will bring new challenges regarding the use of material resources and waste management. Focusing on this problem, the present work explores the use of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based optical waveguides to create textile-based optical sensors. Following an interdisciplinary approach, the research was conducted by combining methods from textile design, material science, and photonics. CMC optical fiber and planar waveguide were compared in corresponding textile structures. We present the laboratory testing results of initial proof of concept samples of bio-based woven smart textiles demonstrating their touch, bending.. and water optical sensing capabilities.